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San Francisco Chronicle 7 Mach 2006. Retrieved 02 Nov. 2008 from
First, just as was the case 12,800 years ago, and as noted above, the date of 11,600 years ago coincides with an immense episode of global flooding – nominated by geologists as Meltwater Pulse 1B – as the remnant ice caps in North America and northern Europe collapsed simultaneously amidst worldwide global warming. The late Cesare Emiliani, Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Miami, carried out isotopic analysis of deep-sea sediments that produced hard evidence of cataclysmic global flooding “between 12,000 and 11,000 years ago”.
Touch 16 July 2007. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2008 from
There are several distinct and compelling curiosities about the terminal Younger Dryas event and the global warming and flooding that accompanied it.
‘A carbon-rich layer,’ summarised the team:,
It was this accumulation of compelling field evidence that Bretz asked to be considered – not by emotion, not by intuition, not by reference to received wisdom, but only by “the established principles of the scientific method”.’ “Ideas without precedent,” he was to write later:
Summarising the damage, the authors envisaged:
Photos by Santha Faiia. Hundreds of feet long and more than 50 feet high these strange undulations across the Camas Prairie are in fact gigantic current ripples left by receding flood waters.
2008 (Quaternary Science Reviews):
And this was the problem with all the criticisms of Bretz both before and after the Washington meeting. The geological establishment did not like what he had to say, it flew in the face of their gradualist reference frame, and they regarded it as a “heresy that must be gently but firmly stamped out”. In the final analysis, however, they could not disprove his science, only disapprove of it, which is a very different thing.