When BIF deposition ended about 2.4 bya (maybe because all of the available iron had been removed), oxygen levels then skyrocketed and may have even reached modern levels, although it may have only been a few percent of Earth's atmosphere, but was substantially higher than it had ever been. Not coincidentally, Earth experienced its first definite ice age, beginning 2.4 bya.

What would you do if you saw someone hurting an animal? Mos...

“Completion comes from within.”

Today’s Affirmation: My eternal happiness comes from within.

As impressive as the capabilities and survival history of the global megafauna were, what seems far more difficult to explain away are the humans that arrived when the global megafauna went suddenly extinct. The only megafauna of note to survive were those that had lived with humans in Africa and Eurasia for more than a million years and learned to avoid them, as almost all game animals do today.


When protohumans mastered and , they eventually transformed , and there is no persuasive reason to believe that an early application of their new ability to inflict wounds would have not been used on each other. As this narrative reaches the rise of and the archeological record’s changing toolsets before people became sedentary, those artifacts may well reflect the conqueror’s toolsets, and the vanished toolsets also represented vanquished and exterminated peoples.

Really awesome words of encouragement and truth! Thanks for your awesome writings…

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Some kinds of organisms found great success with their strategies and they marginalized other kinds and even drove them to extinction, to only die off themselves in a mass extinction event, and the previously marginalized life forms flourished in the post-catastrophic biome. The rise of might have never happened without the dinosaurs’ demise. Mass extinction events account for less than five percent of all species extinctions during the , but they had a profound impact on complex life’s history; the rise of mammals is only one of many radical changes. Not only would a class of animals such as mammals thrive when their dinosaur overlords were gone, but the of mammal evolution was also influenced. It took millions of years, even tens of millions of years, for ecosystems to approach their former level of abundance and diversity after a mass extinction event, and the new biomes could appear radically different from the pre-extinction biome. The geologic periods in the eon of complex life usually have mass extinctions marking their boundaries.

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The was the first mass extinction of organisms that could be seen with the naked human eye. There was an soon before the eon of complex life began, and there may have been mass extinctions of microbes before then, but the evidence is so thin for anything before then that scientists may never know just how many mass extinctions there were. However, bacteria and archaea, those , and those communities do not have the apparent instability of complex life’s food chains, so there may have been few mass extinctions in Precambrian times. Cyanobacteria have not fundamentally changed in billions of years, which means that its mode of living has always worked well enough to ensure its survival. No animals have anything close to such a lengthy pedigree.

Thank you for another poigniant inspirational Jane. And thank you Maddy, I enjoyed your comment.

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The battle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps. Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found. The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today. Scientists such as by the evident intelligence behind the universe’s design, but that did not mean that they believed in a God with a flowing beard. As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we .

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Stone tools and the control of fire had energy consequences to the human line far above all other effects. Whether they happened within a few hundred thousand years of each other, or were separated by more than a million years, they were the key technical/mental/social advances in early humanity’s ability to survive on Earth and expand its range to eventually cover the planet.

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Many assemblages of organisms had their “” in fresh biomes, then to cycle through a plateau, decline, and then finally suffer marginalization or extinction. Sometimes the decline was relatively slow, with its ups and downs, and at other times it could be over in a flash, such as the dinosaurs’ exit.