Here are the primary issues with lowering the drinking age:

Many reasons were proffered to explain the Minoan decline and collapse, including the . What is increasingly cited as the reason for the Minoan decline (and was probably the ultimate reason for its collapse), was that Minoans , primarily via deforestation. Minoans, just as with many other collapsed civilizations, exceeded their land's carrying capacity. For organisms, carrying capacity always meant food and the ability to reproduce, but for civilizations, it also meant the energy needed to run the civilization’s moving parts, including transportation and the energy used to build structures and goods. If we revisit the “” that life faces, whether to use energy to fuel biological processes or build biological structures, civilizations faced the same choice. Humans commandeered the energy that a tree invested in its growth, and there were two basic ways to use it: liberate the energy in the structure by burning it, or use that structure for building human-usable tools or structures, which included buildings and ships. , as did pottery-making and fireplaces and furnaces to heat buildings. Minoans also built a tremendous fleet of ships for trade and military dominance. When rebuilding Minoan palaces, Crete’s inhabitants used wood exuberantly, but by 1500 BCE, the use of wood in palaces declined precipitously, and when Mycenaean Greece annexed Crete, the forests were gone and Greeks used Crete for pasturing their sheep.

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That was a typical winter’s day in early 2013. During that day, around 80 times the calories that fueled my body were burned to support my activities. Those dying children often succumbed to hunger and diseases of poverty, and the daily energy that supported their lives was less than 1% of what I enjoyed that day. How did energy serve my daily activities? How did that disparity between the dying children and me come to be? This essay will address those questions.

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HEPATITIS E: An important, epidemic calicivirus (now hepevirus) infection in the poor nations(Lancet 379: 2477, 2012; NEJM 367: 1237, 2012).

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For all of their seeming cunning and behaviors right out of , rhesus monkeys cannot pass the ; they attack their images, as they see themselves as just another rival monkey. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, pass the mirror test, and the threshold of sentience, whatever sentience really is, may not be far removed from the ability to pass the mirror test, or perhaps humanity has not yet achieved it. , considered the most intelligent New World monkeys, have socially based learning, in which the young watch and imitate their elders. Different capuchin societies have different cultures and different tool-using behaviors reflected in different solutions to similar foraging problems. Capuchins, isolated from African and Asian monkeys for about 30 million years, have striking similarities to their Old World counterparts, with female-centric societies and lethal hierarchical politics. As with chimpanzees and humans, ganging up on lone victims is the preferred method, which increases the chance of success and reduces the risk to the murderers. Unlike rhesus monkeys, for instance, capuchin males can help with infant rearing, but they will also kill infants that they did not father, as rhesus, also do (that behavior has been observed in 50 primate species). Those comparisons provide evidence that simian social organization results from the connection between simian biology and environment; their societies formed to solve the problems of feeding, safety, and reproduction.

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Those first stone tools are called pebble tools, and anthropologists have placed the protohumans who made them in the (also called the Oldowan industry, or on the stone tool scale). The rocks used for Oldowan tools were already nearly the shape needed and were made by banging candidate rocks on a rock “anvil,” and the fractured rock’s sharp edge was the tool. Those first stone tool makers were largely still the hunted, not hunters, and stone edges would have been like claws and teeth that would have made scavenging predator kills easy in a way that primates had never before experienced. Modern researchers have used Oldowan tools to quickly butcher elephants. Sawing a limb from a predator kill and stealing it would have been quick and easy. Stone tools also crushed bones to extract marrow, and would have made harvesting and processing plant foods far easier.