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It is therefore necessary to consider the historical events to grasp the coherence of the present situation regarding the English speaking nations of the world.
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The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand formore: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, morefood. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies andmore men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (aword first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies werein a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their homepopulations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians,136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during thewar. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small numberof Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundredthousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruitedsome 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Andof course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of theold.