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Here is more detail on these three types of questions.
First, what are your objectives? If one of your goals is for students to enter into a dialog with one another, then it is particularly important that they be able see and address each other directly. Obviously, the traditional classroom arrangement, with the instructor positioned before rows of student chairs does not serve this objective. On the other hand, if the style of discussion (or quasi-discussion) is Socratic, with the instructor asking questions and students answering, then a more traditional seating arrangement could be successful. In keeping with your objectives, you might also ask yourself what the arrangement of physical space communicates. Do you want to set yourself apart from other discussion participants, or position yourself as one of them? Do you want to make it difficult for students to avoid participation or do you believe they have the right to opt out? (Some authors, for example, have applied a Foucaultian analysis to discussions, arguing that the traditional circle-format is coercive in that students cannot hide from the instructor’s disciplinary gaze! (citation).
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So, in response, it is often a good idea to answer their questions with a question of your own. Like: "What do you think about that?" or "Anyone here tonight have ideas about the answer to that?"
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Handling strong emotions and disagreement that arise in a discussion can be a challenge for instructors. A certain amount of disagreement is desirable, yet if the conversation gets too heated or antagonistic, it can inhibit participation and squelch a productive exchange of ideas. When emotions are high, remind students to focus on ideas and refrain from personal comments (this stipulation can be included in your ground rules as well). You might also consider asking students to take a minute to write about their reactions to what has been said so they can cool off, focus their thoughts, and consider one another’s perspectives before re-entering the discussion.
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Sometimes the problem is not shy students but overly domineering or aggressive students who monopolize discussion. Sometimes a subtle approach to reining in these students can be effective (for example: “Jake, I see your hand and want to hear your perspective, but I’d like to give some of the other students a chance to answer first.”); other times it may be necessary to take a domineering student aside after class to discuss changing the behavior.