essay on grounding for the metaphysics of morals

Metaphysical Grounding:
The essential properties or essences of entities are the metaphysicalground of metaphysical modality. When we look for an explanation ofwhy something is metaphysically possible or necessary we ultimatelylook to the essential properties or essences of the entitiesinvolved.

The Epistemology of Modality (Stanford Encyclopedia …

Supervenience (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Hume, David | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

It is prima facie plausible to think that all modal knowledgeis in principle a priori, since at least perception ofactuality cannot provide one with knowledge of mere possibility andnecessity. For example, if conceivability is taken to be an apriori exercise, and it is linked to possibility, then it isplausible to think that a priori conceiving that Pprovides one with a priori justification for believing thatP is possible. Likewise, finding P inconceivableprovides one with a priori evidence that P isimpossible. While this might seem to be the only way thatsuch knowledge can be discovered, this simple thought is challenged byKripke’s arguments for the existence of a posteriorinecessities. The problem is discussed in detail in Yablo’s(1993): Is Conceivability a Guide to Possibility? One of themain problems facing contemporary a priori accounts of theepistemology of modality concerns the existence of a posteriorinecessities. Recall that an a posteriori necessity is astatement, such as the identity statement “Water =H2O”, that is metaphysically necessary, yet knowableonly a posteriori. As a consequence, a prioriaccounts face the following potential situation:

Argument be damned, it’s the picture that counts

A related worry to the causal isolation problem comes fromnaturalistic accounts of epistemology that are grounded in the ideathat our capacities for knowledge must be consistent with evolutionaryexplanations of our cognitive capacities. The arguments are aimed atthe very possibility of having justification for beliefs aboutmetaphysical modality. The problem is developed most directly byNozick (2003: Ch. 3), and depends on two claims: (i) a necessarycondition for being justified in believing that P is that asubject have a reliable belief forming module or faculty for thedomain in question, and (ii) that evolution by natural selectionprovides the best explanation for which reliable belief formingmechanisms we possess. The Nozickian evolutionary skeptic argues asfollows:

Metaphilosophy, Contemporary | Internet Encyclopedia …
John locke and liberal nationalism - ScienceDirect

The Unity and Priority Arguments for Grounding | …

As a general point, it is important to note that both Lowe and Halecan be taken to endorse symmetric essentialism, which is theview that essence is both the ground and the epistemic pathway tomodal knowledge. This view is to be contrasted with asymmetricessentialism, which holds that while essence is the ground ofmodality, it is not the epistemic pathway. An asymmetric essentialistholds that our knowledge of necessity is prior to our knowledge ofessence. And that it is through a special investigation of necessitiesthat we come to possess knowledge of essence by modal sorting.

The standard concept of grounding underlying metaphysical foundationalism is ..

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It may turn out that the argument-based approach to necessitydeployed by modalism is limited in that many extraordinary modalclaims, claims for example about the necessity of origins, are suchthat there is no secure ground for them, since they rest oncontroversial metaphysical principles. By contrast the approach maydeliver many ordinary modal claims, claims that are natural extensionsof well-grounded scientific and mathematical theories.

"Turtles All the Way Down: Regress, Priority, and ..

"What is Weak Ground?" Essays in Philosophy 14 (1 ..