How to Write a Good Introduction | The Writing Center at MSU

This can be as easy as outlining the major points that your essay will make on the way to the conclusion. You don't need to go into much detail in the introduction: just signal the major ‘landmarks.’

How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)

Using the following links, you can find a lot of good comparison topics for your essay:

18/12/2015 · How to Write an Essay Introduction

An introduction often ends on the thesis statement. It begins with a broad statement and gradually narrows down until it directly addresses the question:

Essay Structure: introduction, body paragraphs, …

or you could just add their logarithms:



It starts out as fairly unlikely that a woman has breast cancer - ourcredibility level is at -20 decibels. Then three test resultscomein, corresponding to 9, 13, and 5 decibels of evidence. Thisraises the credibility level by a total of 27 decibels, meaning thattheprior credibility of -20 decibels goes to a posterior credibility of 7decibels. So the odds go from 1:99 to 5:1, and the probabilitygoes from 1% to around 83%.



Just for fun, try and work this one out in your head. You don'tneed to be exact - a rough estimate is good enough. When you'reready, continue onward.


According to a study performed by Lawrence Phillips and Ward Edwards in1966, most people, faced with this problem, give an answer in the range70% to 80%. Did you give a substantially higher probability thanthat? If you did, congratulations - Ward Edwards wrote that veryseldom does a person answer this question properly, even if the personis relatively familiar with Bayesian reasoning. The correctansweris 97%.

The likelihood ratio for the test result "red chip" is 7/3, while thelikelihood ratio for the test result "blue chip" is 3/7. Thereforea blue chip is exactly the same amount of evidence as a red chip, justin the other direction - a red chip is 3.6 decibels of evidence for thered bag, and a blue chip is -3.6 decibels of evidence. If youdrawone blue chip and one red chip, they cancel out. So the of red chips to blue chipsdoes not matter; only the of red chips over blue chips matters. There were eight red chipsand four blue chips in twelve samples; therefore, four red chips than bluechips. Thus the posterior odds will be:

44which is around 30:1, i.e., around 97%.

The prior credibility starts at 0 decibels and there's a total ofaround 14 decibels of evidence, and indeed this corresponds to odds ofaround 25:1 or around 96%. Again, there's some rounding error,butif you performed the operations using exact arithmetic, the resultswould be identical.

We can now see that the bookbag problem would have exactly the same answer, obtainedinjust the same way, if sixteen chips were sampled and we found ten redchips and six blue chips.



What is the sequence of arithmetical operations that you performed tosolve this problem?

(45%*30%) / (45%*30% + 5%*70%)



Similarly, to find the chance that a woman with positive mammographyhas breast cancer, we computed:








The fully general form of this calculation is known as or


Given some phenomenon A that we want to investigate, and an observationX that is evidence about A - for example, in the previous example, A isbreast cancer and X is a positive mammography - Bayes' Theorem tells ushow we should ourprobability of A, given the X.



By this point, Bayes' Theorem may seem blatantly obvious or eventautological, rather than exciting and new. If so, thisintroduction has in its purpose.




So why is it that some people are so about Bayes' Theorem?

"Do you believe that a nuclear war will occur in the next 20 years?

You may find it useful to think of an essay's introduction as funnel shaped ­ moving from the general to the specific.
The introduction to your essay is the first thing people will read, so you want to make it count

What makes a good essay? - Monash University


B. How to Write a Conclusion.
In much the same way that the introduction lays out the thesis for the reader, the conclusion of the paper should reiterate the main points—it should never introduce new ideas or things not discussed in the body of the paper!—and bring the argument home. The force with which you express the theme here is especially important, because if you're ever going to convince the reader that your thesis has merit, it will be in the conclusion. In other words, just as lawyers win their cases in the closing argument, this is the point where you'll persuade others to adopt your thesis.

How to write a good introduction for an essay for english


A. How to Write an Introduction.
The introduction of a persuasive essay or paper must be substantial. Having finished it, the reader ought to have a very clear idea of the author's purpose in writing. To wit, after reading the introduction, I tend to stop and ask myself where I think the rest of the paper is headed, what the individual paragraphs in its body will address and what the general nature of the conclusion will be. If I'm right, it's because the introduction has laid out in clear and detailed fashion the theme and the general facts which the author will use to support it.

A good introduction to an essay about myself? - EssayForum

Think of it this way. As the writer of an essay, you're essentially a lawyer arguing in behalf of a client (your thesis) before a judge (the reader) who will decide the case (agree or disagree with you). So, begin as a lawyer would, by laying out the facts to the judge in the way you think it will help your client best. Like lawyers in court, you should make an "opening statement," in this case, an introduction. Then review the facts of the case in detail just as lawyers question witnesses and submit evidence during a trial. This process of presentation and cross-examination is equivalent to the "body" of your essay. Finally, end with a "closing statement"—that is, the conclusion of your essay—arguing as strongly as possible in favor of your client's case, namely, your theme.