The Autumn of the Literary Patriarch: ..

Grammatical and literary studies began at Basrawith Abu I-Aswad ad-Du'ali, the friend and confidant of the Prophet'sson-in-law 'Ali. It naturally happened that many of the people of 'Iraqwho had learned Arabic only late in life when they were converted toIslam committed many solecisms in reading the te t of the Qur'an, anthese errors distressed 'Ali. So he appealed to ad-Du'ali to draw upsome rules for the guidance of those who were not well used to the useof the only language permitted for prayer and reading the revealedword, But ad-Du'ali was prevented from carrying out this command by'Ali's murder on 21 St January, 661, and he wasreluctant to take any steps to assist the governor Ziyad ibn Abihi whomhe regarded with disapproval because he, after serving 'Ali, hadtransferred his services to the 'Umayyad usurper Mu'awiya. Though Ziyadrenewed 'Ali's request ad-Du'ali held back and did nothing. Then oneday he heard a reader mispronounce two vowels in the text of Qur., 9,3, so as to pervert the sense from "God is free from (the covenant of)the idolaters, and His Apostle (also is free)" into "God is free from(the covenant of the idolaters and (from the covenant of) His Apostle",and this misrepresentation of the inspired word so shocked him that heforthwith began to devise methods to prevent similar errors. For thispurpose he introduced vowel points into the hitherto unpainted Arabictext and began giving instruction in the grammar and vocabulary of theArabic language. Incidentally in doing this he seems to have been tosome extent influenced by Aristotle's logic, not by any of the Greekgrammarians.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Autumn of the Patriarch.

At the heart of this training is the realization about the truth about emptiness.

(The Autumn of the Patriarch) ..

Narsai, who may have remained at Edessa untilthe school was finally closed in 489 and have succeeded Barsauma ashead of that school, or may have accompanied Barsauma in his migrationto Persia before that, as Shem'on of Beth Arsham says, was equallyvigorous in his advocacy of Nestorianism, but for a period was opposedto Barsauma and harshly treated by him: undoubtedly Barsauina was a manof overbearing and arbitrary temper. After he was made Bishop ofNisibis (485), probably after the closing of the school of Edessa(489), Barsauma established the school of Nisibis and placed it underthe direction of Narsai (cf. below).

The persistence of patriarchy | New Internationalist

During the period 457-484 Barsauma took drasticmeasures to promote Nestorianism in Persia. He persuaded the king thatit was necessary that the Persian Church should be differentiated fromthe orthodox Church in the Roman Empire, and one measure he took to dothis was to induce the bishops to marry, which fitted in very well withthe Persian idea that it was every man's duty to be married and rearchildren. To enforce this he held a council at Bait Lapat(Jundi-Shapur) la April, 4,84, a synod attended by only a few bishops,and there decreed the legality of episcopal marriage. The synod wasafterwards adjudged to be null and void as Barsauma was not themetropolitan, who alone was entitled to convoke synods, andconsequently its decrees are not included in the No doubt Barsauma counted on being made Catholicos at Babowai'sdeath, but as his protector Peroz died soon afterwards, before thebishops met to elect a new metropolitan, they were able to hold a freeelection and, already aware that Barsauma was a man of turbulent andtyrannical tempers preferred to choose Aqaq (Acacius), who was also analumnus of the school of Edessa. The new Catholicos held a synod atBeth 'Adrai in August, 485, at which the canons of Beit Lapat wereconfirmed, and a more formal council at Seleucia in February, 486,whose acts have come down to us 299-309), andfrom these we can gather the general tendency of Barsauma's changesdesigned to adapt the Nestorian Church to Persian standards. All thisseems to have been a reaction against the anti-Nestorian development inthe Roman Empire under Zeno. Six letters which passed between Barsaumaand the Catholicos Acacius are preserved in 532-9,and reveal him as a strong opponent of everything hostile toNestorianism and a devoted servant of the Persian crown.

When we see a cross with a robe draped upon it wethink of the sacrifice and triumph of Messiah.
It involved a huge procession with the image of Sokar being carried in a gilded boat [ark].

Sharing a Mountain Hut with a Cloud

The range and method of Hunayn's work is knownto us from his autobiography, the letterswritten to 'Ali ibn Yahya in 865, of which the text with translationhas been published from two manuscripts in the Aya Sophia Mosque atStamboul, by G. Bergestrasser, Leipzig, 1925, a work which has beenanalysed by Dr. Meyerhof in iii (1926), 685-724).

The last days of the feast were in fact observed with no small amount of agony and sadness.

Evolution of Daruma Art in Japan

The desire to be safe from the liability topersecution seems to have been responsible for the formation of aflourishing church in Mesopotamia outside the Roman Empire. ThisMesopotamian Church, chiefly about Edessa, lived its own life in acomparatively free atmosphere, and developed its own style of churchbuilding and, apparently, its own system of discipline. Later, when theempire became Christian and the Catholic Church was directed by Greekbishops, much of this local Mesopotamian development was suppressedwith a high hand, but the fact remains that some of the earliest extantevidence of church organization and building belongs to the area justacross the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire. This Mesopotamian areahad experienced Greek influence under the Seleucids. Greek influencewas brought to bear by the Romans whose frontier towards Parthia swayedback and forth from time to time and who always had political interestin the border lands. But it was the Church more than anything elsewhich brought about the Hellenization of that area across the frontier.

Of these include the obsession with the accumulation of money and wealth of an indulgent and self-entitled society.

Feasts of the Hebrews - Essays by Ekowa..

From the Nicene age onwards the Church wassteadily organizing itself on lines similar to those already employedin the civil administration of the empire, though the areas ofprovinces, dioceses, and eparchies was not in all cases identical withthose of the civil structure. Thus organized as a kind of replica ofthe Roman Empire it very efficiently and thoroughly assimilated theChristian communities, not only of Mesopotamia but also of Persia, toHellenistic standards. Such standards applied to social organizationprepared the way for Greek culture. The Christian religion, unlike someof the older religions, was not based on ritual observances alone, norentirely on rules of moral conduct. The Greek influence it inheritedcame from that later Greek thought in which religion was absorbed inphilosophy. Christianity set a body of theological doctrine in theforefront: ritual observances were designed as expressions of that bodyof doctrine, and morality also was built up on a basis of doctrinalteaching. All this doctrine was strongly Coloured by philosophy, muchof it was simply philosophy expressed in theological terms. Thephilosophy thus adopted and utilized by the Christian Church was thatphilosophical teaching current in the Greek world during the earliercenturies of the Christian era, the eclectic philosophy which professedto be derived from Plato