Machiavelli‟s contribution to what politics is ..

Berlin’s best-known contribution to political theory has been hisessay on the distinction between positive and negative liberty. Thisdistinction is explained, and the vast literature on it summarised,elsewhere in this encyclopaedia; the following therefore focuses onlyon Berlin’s original argument, which has often been misunderstood, inpart because of ambiguities in Berlin’s account.

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Niccolo Machiavelli Biography - Brandeis University
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ITALIAN GOVERNMENT - Five paragraph essay structure.

Isaiah Berlin (1909–97) was a British philosopher, historian ofideas, political theorist, educator and essayist. For much of his lifehe was renowned for his conversational brilliance, his defence ofliberalism, his attacks on political extremism and intellectualfanaticism, and his accessible, coruscating writings on the history ofideas. His essay Two Concepts of Liberty (1958) contributedto a revival of interest in political theory in the English-speakingworld, and remains one of the most influential and widely discussedtexts in that field: admirers and critics agree that Berlin’sdistinction between positive and negative liberty remains, for betteror worse, a basic starting-point for theoretical discussions of themeaning and value of political freedom. Late in his life, the greateravailability of Berlin’s numerous essays began to provoke increasingscholarly interest in his work, and particularly in the idea of valuepluralism; that Berlin’s articulation of value pluralism contains manyambiguities and even obscurities has only encouraged further work onthe subject by other philosophers.

How Significant is Feminism’s Contribution to IR? | …

As well as treating politics as a distinct field of study subject to its own laws, a second contribution to the modern concept of the state is Machiavelli's idea of "virtu" as a necessary spirit of vitality underlying government. Virtu represents the strength of will that can oppose chance circumstance (Fortuna) and bring about political success irrespective of either right or probability. Machiavelli believed that to hold power governments (whether republics or principalities) must be able to take action resolutely, not wavering or seeking always .

How Significant is Feminism's Contribution to IR?
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Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …

Princeton University Press on JSTOR

Commentary on the Apology of Socrates - Friesian School