This has been translated into Polish here:
High school essays, college research papers and graduate projects
The second reason springs directly from biological facts. Tolive, any organism must have a source of energy (for example,food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenanceand work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600kilocalories a day ("maintenance calories"). Anythingthat he does over and above merely staying alive will be definedas work, and is supported by "work calories" which hetakes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call workin common speech; they are also required for all forms ofenjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing musicand writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it isobvious what we must do: We must make the work calories perperson approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals,no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art Ithink that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, thatmaximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal isimpossible.
Have your college essay written today!
The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It didnot much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed ofhis waste. "Flowing water purifies itself every tenmiles," my grandfather used to say, and the myth was nearenough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not toomany people. But as population became denser, the naturalchemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded,calling for a redefinition of property rights.
Declaration of Independence; U.
We can make little progress in working toward optimumpopulation size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of AdamSmith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, (1776) popularized the "invisiblehand," the idea that an individual who "intends onlyhis own gain," is, as it were, "led by an invisiblehand to promote the public interest." Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, andperhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to adominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered withpositive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendencyto assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, bethe best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption iscorrect it justifies the continuance of our present policy of in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume thatmen will control their individual fecundity so as to produce theoptimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need toreexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones aredefensible.
24/7 Non-plagiarized essay writing help papers help from
Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidencethat a population is below its optimum. However, by anyreasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations onearth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association(which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimisticassumption that the positive growth rate of a population isevidence that it has yet to reach its optimum.