Includes "From Freedom to Bondage," by Herbert Spencer.

Secondly, once we have concluded that the best explanation for the emergence of the universe is the concept of God, it would be illogical to maintain that someone created Him. God created the universe and is not bound by its laws, He is by definition an uncreated Being, and He never came into existence. Something that never began cannot be created.

Some essays published earlier as pamphlets

Frederick Engels, Ernest Untermann, eds.

Samuel Moore, Edward Aveling, trans.

In England itself, religious conflict dominated the 17th century,contributing in important respects to the coming of the English civilwar, and the abolishing of the Anglican Church during theProtectorate. After the Restoration of Charles II, Anglicans inparliament passed laws which repressed both Catholics and Protestantsects such as Presbyterians, Baptists, Quakers and Unitarians who didnot agree with the doctrines or practices of the state Church. Ofthese various dissenting sects, some were closer to the Anglicans,others more remote. One reason among others why King Charles may havefound Shaftesbury useful was that they were both concerned aboutreligious toleration. They parted when it became clear that the Kingwas mainly interested in toleration for Catholics, and Shaftesbury forProtestant dissenters.

Kahane, trans.Foreword by Friedrich A.

At the end of the Second Treatise we learn about the nature ofillegitimate civil governments and the conditions under whichrebellion and regicide are legitimate and appropriate. As noted above,scholars now hold that the book was written during the Exclusioncrisis, and may have been written to justify a general insurrectionand the assassination of the king of England and his brother. Theargument for legitimate revolution follows from making the distinctionbetween legitimate and illegitimate civil government. A legitimatecivil government seeks to preserve the life, health, liberty andproperty of its subjects, insofar as this is compatible with thepublic good. Because it does this it deserves obedience. Anillegitimate civil government seeks to systematically violate thenatural rights of its subjects. It seeks to make them illegitimateslaves. Because an illegitimate civil government does this, it putsitself in a state of nature and a state of war with its subjects. Themagistrate or king of such a state violates the law of nature and somakes himself into a dangerous beast of prey who operates on theprinciple that might makes right, or that the strongest carries it. Insuch circumstances, rebellion is legitimate as is the killing of sucha dangerous beast of prey. Thus Locke justifies rebellion and regicideunder certain circumstances. Presumably this justification was goingto be offered for the killing of the King of England and his brotherhad the Rye House Plot succeeded. Even if this was not Locke’sintention, it still would have served that purpose well.

Foreword by Bettina Bien Greaves.
Appendix by Edward Atkinson, Introduction by Hodgson Pratt, Prefatory letter by Frédéric Passy.

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As Sartre and Merleau-Ponty would later do, Heidegger pursued theseissues with the somewhat unlikely resources of Edmund Husserl'sphenomenological method. And while not all existential philosopherswere influenced by phenomenology (for instance Jaspers and Marcel), thephilosophical legacy of existentialism is largely tied to the form ittook as an existential version of phenomenology. Husserl's efforts inthe first decades of the twentieth century had been directed towardestablishing a descriptive science of consciousness, by which heunderstood not the object of the natural science of psychology but the“transcendental” field of intentionality, i.e., that whereby ourexperience is meaningful, an experience of somethingas something. The existentialists welcomed Husserl's doctrineof intentionality as a refutation of the Cartesian view according towhich consciousness relates immediately only to its ownrepresentations, ideas, sensations. According to Husserl, consciousnessis our direct openness to the world, one that is governed categorially(normatively) rather than causally; that is, intentionality is not aproperty of the individual mind but the categorial framework in whichmind and world become intelligible.[]

Important Things To Learn About Ontological Argument St Anselm Pdf Essay

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Commitment—or “engagement”—is thus ultimatelythe basis for an authentically meaningful life, that is, one thatanswers to the existential condition of being human and does not fleethat condition by appeal to an abstract system of reason or divinewill. Yet though I alone can commit myself to some way of life, someproject, I am never alone when I do so; nor do I do so in a social,historical, or political vaccuum. If transcendence represents myradical freedom to define myself, facticity—that other aspect ofmy being—represents the situated character of thisself-making. Because freedom as transcendence undermines the idea of astable, timeless system of moral norms, it is little wonder thatexistential philosophers (with the exception of Simone de Beauvoir) devoted scant energy to questions ofnormative moral theory. However, because this freedom is alwayssocially (and thereby historically) situated, it is equallyunsurprising that their writings are greatly concerned with how ourchoices and commitments are concretely contextualized in terms ofpolitical struggles and historical reality.

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Take the following examples into consideration:

Conceptually, the universe is no different to the bag of balls or the stack of cubes I have explained above. The universe is real. It is made up of discrete physical things. Since the differentiated infinite cannot exist in the real world, it follows that the universe cannot be infinite. This implies that the universe is finite, and since it is finite it must have had a beginning.