COGNOMEN (plural, cognomina): See discussion under .

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be "accurate" and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid, about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

COMPLEX METAPHOR: Another term for a .

6 Conqeror Worm] S: Conqueror Worme; B: Conqueror Wyrm, Ml: Conqu. Wm.

Not to be confused with , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

Sociological studies (e.g., Ecklundt 2010) have probed the religiousbeliefs of scientists, particularly in the United States. Theyindicate a significant difference in religiosity in scientistscompared to the general population. Surveys such as those conducted bythe Pew forum (Masci and Smith 2016) find that nearly nine in tenadults in the US say they believe in God or a universal spirit, anumber that has only slightly declined in recent decades. Amongyounger adults, the percentage of theists is about 80%. Atheism andagnosticism are widespread among academics, especially among thoseworking in elite institutions. A survey among National Academy ofSciences members (all senior academics, overwhelmingly from elitefaculties) found that the majority disbelieved in God’sexistence (72.2%), with 20.8% being agnostic, and only 7% theists(Larson and Witham 1998). Ecklund and Scheitle (2007) analyzed responsesfrom scientists (working in the social and natural sciences) from 21elite universities in the US. About 31.2% of their participantsself-identified as atheists and a further 31 % as agnostics. Theremaining number believed in a higher power (7%), sometimes believedin God (5.4%), believed in God with some doubts (15.5%), or believedin God without any doubts (9.7%). In contrast to the generalpopulation, the older scientists in this sample did not show higherreligiosity—in fact, they were more likely to say that they didnot believe in God. On the other hand, Gross and Simmons (2009)examined a more heterogeneous sample of scientists from Americancolleges, including community colleges, elite doctoral-grantinginstitutions, non-elite four-year state schools, and small liberalarts colleges. They found that the majority of university professors(full-time tenured or tenure-track faculty) had some theistic beliefs,believing either in God (34.9%), in God with some doubts (16.6%), inGod some of the time (4.3%), or in a higher power (19.2%). Belief inGod was influenced both by type of institution (lower theistic beliefin more prestigious schools) and by discipline (lower theistic beliefin the physical and biological sciences compared to the socialsciences and humanities).

Causal Premise: ’s belief that iscaused by the evolutionary process

The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman, page 14:

Epistemic Premise: The evolutionary process  does nottrack the truth of propositions like
Fear Conflict quotes - 1

The Poetics of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) is a much-disdained book

CAVE, THE: Not to be confused with , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details,the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother "Warnie" retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. and below.

He is always living under fear; ..

Imagining the Future: Visions for Conflict Transformation 1 Jan 2018

In recent decades, Church leaders have issued conciliatory publicstatements on evolutionary theory. Pope John Paul II (1996) affirmedevolutionary theory in his message to the Pontifical Academy ofSciences, but rejected it for the human soul, which he saw as theresult of a separate, special creation. The Church of England publiclyendorsed evolutionary theory (e.g., M. Brown 2008), including anapology to Charles Darwin for its initial rejection of his theory.

How Should Conflicts In Team Writing Be Resolved

Literary Terms and Definitions C - Carson-Newman College

Christian authors in the field of science and religion continue todebate how these two books interrelate. Concordism is the attempt tointerpret scripture in the light of modern science. It is ahermeneutical approach to Bible interpretation, where one expects thatthe Bible foretells scientific theories, such as the Big Bang theoryor evolutionary theory. However, as Denis Lamoureux (2008: chapter 5)argues, many scientific-sounding statements in the Bible are false:the mustard seed is not the smallest seed, male reproductive seeds donot contain miniature persons, there is no firmament, and the earth isneither flat nor immovable. Thus, any plausible form of integratingthe books of nature and scripture will require more nuance andsophistication. Theologians such as John Wesley (1703–1791) haveproposed the addition of other sources of knowledge to scripture andscience: the Wesleyan quadrilateral (a term not coined by Wesleyhimself) is the dynamic interaction of scripture, experience(including the empirical findings of the sciences), tradition, andreason (Outler 1985).