Readers have different expectations from fiction and nonfiction.

Carl Haber is a screenwriter, director and producer with numerouscredits in film, theater and TV. He has written stories and screenplaysfor Hollywood movies and independent films, as well as original motionpictures and TV movies in Italy, the Czech Republic, and Brazil. Hefounded and led a workshop in Rome for professional actors, and taughtdirecting, production and acting at the Prague Film School in the CzechRepublic, where he supervised nearly 1,000 student scripts and films andserved as faculty chair. A member of the Writers’ Guild of America since1988, a Philadelphia native, and a Penn alumnus, Carl Haber is currentlydeveloping several new feature films based on scripts he wrote, inEurope and the US, including projects to shoot in Philadelphia.

See more great ideas in our related on reading non-fiction with ELLs!

 Nonfiction (as noted  , as well as below) is characterized by a claim of truth.

We do not have to analyze everything we read.

Museums provided some of the earliest alternatives to thestandard accounts of Hollywood’s history, as when Richard Koszarski programmedfilms by then little-known directors like Maurice Tourneur, Benjamin Christensen,and Reginald Barker.

The point is to be able to interpret when we want to—or have to.

Poet, scholar, and multimedia artist Christopher Funkhouser is aleading researcher in the developing genre of digital poetry. In 2009,the Associated Press commissioned him to prepare digital poems for theoccasion of Barack Obama’s inauguration. He is author of a majordocumentary study, , published in the Modern and Contemporary PoeticsSeries at University of Alabama Press (2007). An eBook (CD-ROM),, was issued by the Faculty of Creative Multimediaat Multimedia University (2006). He is a member of the scientific reviewcommittee of the digital literature journal ,based at Université Paris 8, and has produced and edited manypublications online and in-print, including an early Internet-basedpoetry magazine, (We 17, 1993), and the first literary journal on CD-ROMin the United States (, Vol. 21, 1995). Since1986 he has been an editor with We Press, with whom he has producedpoetry in a variety of media. He is an Associate Professor in theHumanities Department at New Jersey Institute of Technology. In 2006 hewas a Visiting Fulbright Scholar at Multimedia University in Cyberjaya,Malaysia, and in 2007 he was on the faculty of the summer writingprogram at Naropa University.

Critical readers will recognize these subjective elements in seemingly objective presentations.
Proof is a major issue with nonfiction; emotional involvement is a major issue with fiction.

Let's look at these steps in more detail:

Cristin O'Keefe Aptowicz is the author of five books of poetry: and . She is also theauthor of the non-fiction book, , which named as one of five Notable Books on ExploringPoetry in 2008. Born and raised in Philadelphia, Cristin moved to NewYork City at the age of 17. At age 19, she founded the three-timeNational Poetry Slam championship poetry series NYC-Urbana, which isstill held weekly at the NYC's famed Bowery Poetry Club. Her work hasbeen published in and ,among others. She has lectured and performed throughout the U.S. andAustralia, including the Sydney Opera House in Australia (2003), Joe'sPub in New York City (2002), the Largo Theatre in Los Angeles (2010) andover 100 universities and colleges. Cristin is using her ArtsEdgeresidency to write a book on the life and times of Thomas Dent Mutter,founder of Philadelphia's (in)famous Mutter Museum, and will be teachinga course on non-fiction poetry and prose in the Spring semester. Formore information, please visit her website at:

We expect a story (fiction) to grab us, an essay (nonfiction) to convince us.

David Bordwell, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson

This retrospective is not the place to hash out differences of opinion aboutresearch in reception. In my view, David’s trajectory has been toconsider how textual systems solicit and cue hypothetical spectators to engagewith a film. In many instances, hypothetical spectators are verymuch like historically constituted spectators. My trajectory has been totry to develop historical methods to investigate actual instances of receptionin order to work towards theorizing the real effects of cinema and other mediawithin social and cultural circumstances. I see a place for both sortsof questions, but I do see significant differences in what they want to explain.

Both fiction and nonfiction can be subjected to analysis and interpretation.

We draw meaning from the types of actions.

Among other things, the book was intended to show that,contrary to what many critics and film historians were saying, the classicalnarrative is not a thing of the past. We have not entered into a post-classicalera dominated by films sacrificing traditional narrative techniques like goalorientation and dialogue hooks in favor of sheer spectacle.