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Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. 1243-1248 DOI: 10.1126/science.162.3859.1243

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The National Parks present another instance of the working outof the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all,without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent --there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems togrow without limit. The values that visitors seek in the parksare steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat theparks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone.

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In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears inproblems of pollution. Here it is not a question of takingsomething out of the commons, but of putting something in --sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water;noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting andunpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. Thecalculations of utility are much the same as before. The rationalman finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he dischargesinto the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastesbefore releasing them. Since this is true for everyone, we arelocked into a system of "fouling our own nest," so longas we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers.

"The Tragedy of the Commons," Garrett Hardin,Science, 162(1968):1243-1248.
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The second reason springs directly from biological facts. Tolive, any organism must have a source of energy (for example,food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenanceand work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600kilocalories a day ("maintenance calories"). Anythingthat he does over and above merely staying alive will be definedas work, and is supported by "work calories" which hetakes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call workin common speech; they are also required for all forms ofenjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing musicand writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it isobvious what we must do: We must make the work calories perperson approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals,no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art Ithink that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, thatmaximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal isimpossible.

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4. J. H. Fremlin, No.415 (1964), p. 285.

A finite world can support only a finite population;therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (Thecase of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is atrivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this conditionis met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, canBentham's goal of "the greatest good for the greatestnumber" be realized?